22 Januari 2011

Cardiovascular test (in English)

173. Which one of the following ECG components varies with heart rate?
a. PR interval
b. QRS duration
c. ST segment
d. QT interval
e. QRS voltage
174. Which of the following cardiac parameters decreases during pregnancy?
a. Cardiac output
b. Stroke volume
c. Heart rate
d. Blood volume
e. Systemic vascular resistance
175. Which of the following occurs during systole?
a. Blood passes from atria into the ventricles
b. The atrioventricular (AV) valves are open
c. Rapid ventricular filling occurs
d. The ventricles contract
e. Atrial contraction propels final proportion of blood into ventricles
176. Cardiac output, the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles in
1 minute, is equal to which of the following?
a. The product of heart rate and stroke volume
b. The product of contractility and preload
c. The difference between preload and afterload
d. The product of heart rate and preload
e. The difference between contractility and afterload
Review the Frank-Starling curve to answer questions 177–179.

177. Curve A corresponds to which of the following?
a. A patient in congestive heart failure
b. A patient with normal left ventricular function who is receiving intravenous
dobutamine as part of a diagnostic study for ischemia
c. A patient in congestive heart failure due to diastolic dysfunction
d. A normal person whose stroke volume increases as preload increases
e. A patient with congestive heart failure treated with a positive inotrope
178. Curve B corresponds to which of the following?
a. A patient in congestive heart failure treated with a positive inotrope
b. A patient in congestive heart failure due to systolic function
c. A normal person whose stroke volume increases as preload increases
d. A patient with normal left ventricular function who is receiving intravenous
dobutamine as part of a diagnostic study for ischemia
e. A patient in congestive heart failure due to diastolic dysfunction
179. Curve C corresponds to which of the following?
a. A patient in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction
b. A normal person whose stroke volume increases as preload increases
c. A patient with normal left ventricular function who is receiving intravenous
dobutamine as part of a diagnostic study for ischemia
d. A patient in congestive heart failure due to diastolic function
e. A patient in congestive heart failure treated with a positive inotrope
Review the left ventricular pressure volume loop to answer questions
180–183.


180. Which of the following represent the mitral valve opening?
a. Point A
b. Line A–B
c. Point B
d. Line B–C
e. Point C
181. Which of the following represent the mitral valve closing?
a. Line A–B
b. Point B
c. Point C
d. Line B–C
e. Point D
182. Which of the following represent the aortic valve opening?
a. Point A
b. Line B–C
c. Point C
d. Line C–D
e. Point D
183. Which of the following represent left ventricular ejection?
a. Point A
b. Point B
c. Line B–C
d. Line C–D
e. Point C
Review the diagram of an ECG tracing for questions 184–187.


184. Which of the following would represent left or right atrial enlargement
on a surface electrocardiogram?
a. Wide or tall P wave
b. Wide or tall T wave
c. A prominent U wave
d. An elevated J point
e. A large QRS voltage
185. Which of the following is often noted during hypokalemia?
a. Prominent P wave
b. Prominent QRS complex
c. Long Q–T interval
d. Prominent U wave
e. J point elevation
186. Which of the following represent repolarization of the ventricles?
a. P wave
b. QRS complex
c. T wave
d. J point
e. U wave
187. Which of the following would widen if a bundle branch block were
present?
a. P wave
b. QRS complex
c. T wave
d. J point
e. U wave
188. A normal frontal plane QRS axis is
a. 90degreeto 180degree
b. −30to −90
c. −30to 90
d. 0to 150
e. 0to 90
189. Which of the following associations is correct?
a. Hypokalemia: shortened Q–T interval
b. Hypercalcemia: long Q–T interval
c. Hypercalcemia: flattened T waves
d. Hypocalcemia: U waves
e. Hyperkalemia: peaked T waves

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