19 Juli 2010

Terminology untuk infertilitas

Teman2, buat mudahnya emang googling aja sih, kalo baca Dorland n buku teks lebih bagus lagi.

Ni hasil googling ce


 

Pil kontasepsi : Pil / tablet kontrasepsi mengandung hormon sintetik yang berfungsi untuk mencegah pengeluaran sel telur dari indung telur dan mengentalkan

cairan leher Rahim.Sehingga menghambat sperma untuk masuk lebih jauh ke dalam Rahim.Pil Kontrasepsi ini dipasaran tersedia dalam berbagai jenis / merek de-

ngan berbagai macam komposisi kadar hormonnya.Pada umumnya pil ini terdiri dari 28 pil  yang terdiri dari 21 pil yang berisi hormon dan 7 pil yang tidak berisi hormon.

Pemakai diharuskan minum pil tsb setiap hari 1 pil dimulai dengan pil dengan tanda urutan pertama Efektifitas pil ini dapat mencapai  98 - 99 persen ,pil ini dinyatakan aman

selama pemakaian dibawah pengawasan dokter


 

Infertilitas : sulit untuk bisa hamil, Gangguan keseimbangan hormon merupakan penyebab terbanyak. Penyebab lain yang mungkin adalah pemakaian obat2an tertentu dalam jangka panjang. Obat golongan steroid serta pil KB kadang2 dapat menyebabkannya.

DUB:

Dismenorea:

Endometriosis: Endometriosis merupakan kondisi medis pada wanita yang ditandai dengan tumbuhnya sel endometrium di luar kandung rahim. Kandung rahim dilapisi oleh sel endometrium yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap hormon wanita. Normalnya, sel endometrium rahim akan menebal selama siklus kewanitaan berlangsung agar nantinya siap untuk menerima hasil pembuahan antara sel telur dan sperma. Bila sel telur tidak mengalami pembuahan, maka sel endometrium yang menebal akan meluruh dan keluar sebagai darah menstruasi.

Pada endometriosis, sel endometrium yang semula berada dalam rahim akan berpindah dan tumbuh di luar kandung rahim. Sel ini bisa saja tumbuh dan berpindah ke ovarium, saluran telur (tuba fallopi), belakang rahim, ligamentum uterus bahkan dapat sampai ke usus dan kandung kencing. Sel endometrium ini memiliki respon yang sama seperti sel endometrium pada rahim dan sangat berpengaruh terhadap hormon kewanitaan. Pada saat menstruasi berlangsung, sel-sel endometrium yang berpindah ini akan mengelupas dan menimbulkan perasaan nyeri di sekitar panggul.

Fluor albus: keputihan yang pada skeario bisa saja disebabkan oleh sifilis yang ditularkan suaminya

Aborsi :


 

Ada info tambahan tentang aborsi (sumber : Aborsi Legal di UU Kesehatan No 36 Tahun 2009

Disahkannya Undang-Undang Kesehatan yang baru menimbulkan kontroversi di berbagai lapisan masyarakat. Adanya pasal yang mengatur mengenai aborsi dalam praktek medis mengundang berbagai reaksi.

Berikut petikan tentang pasal-pasal mengenai aborsi

Pasal 75
(1) Setiap orang dilarang melakukan aborsi.
(2) Larangan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) dapat dikecualikan berdasarkan:
a. indikasi kedaruratan medis yang dideteksi sejak usia dini kehamilan, baik yang mengancam nyawa ibu dan/atau janin, yang menderita penyakit genetik berat dan/atau cacat bawaan, maupun yang tidak dapat diperbaiki sehingga menyulitkan bayi tersebut hidup di luar kandungan; atau
b. kehamilan akibat perkosaan yang dapat menyebabkan trauma psikologis bagi korban
perkosaan;
(3) Tindakan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) hanya dapat dilakukan setelah melalui konseling dan/atau penasehatan pra tindakan dan diakhiri dengan konseling pasca tindakan
yang dilakukan oleh konselor yang kompeten dan berwenang.
(4) Ketentuan lebih lanjut mengenai indikasi kedaruratan medis dan perkosaan, sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) dan ayat (3) diatur dengan Peraturan Pemerintah.

Pasal 76
Aborsi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 75 hanya dapat dilakukan:
a. sebelum kehamilan berumur 6 (enam) minggu dihitung dari hari pertama haid terakhir, kecuali dalam hal kedaruratan medis;
b. oleh tenaga kesehatan yang memiliki keterampilan dan kewenangan yang memiliki sertifikat yang ditetapkan oleh menteri;
c. dengan persetujuan ibu hamil yang bersangkutan;
d. dengan izin suami, kecuali korban perkosaan; dan
e. penyedia layanan kesehatan yang memenuhi syarat yang ditetapkan oleh Menteri.

Pasal 77
Pemerintah wajib melindungi dan mencegah perempuan dari aborsi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 75 ayat (2) dan ayat (3) yang tidak bermutu, tidak aman, dan tidak bertanggung jawab serta bertentangan dengan norma agama dan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan.



Ini penjelasan tentang pasal-pasal tersebut

Pasal 75
Ayat (1)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (3)
Yang dimaksud dengan konselor adalah setiap orang yang telah memiliki sertifikat sebagai konselor melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan. Yang dapat menjadi konselor adalah dokter, psikolog, tokoh masyarakat, tokoh agama, dan setiap orang yang mempunyai minat dan memiliki keterampilan untuk itu.
Ayat (4)
Cukup jelas

Pasal 76
Cukup jelas

Pasal 77
Yang dimaksud dengan praktik aborsi yang tidak bermutu, tidak aman, dan tidak bertanggung jawab adalah aborsi yang dilakukan dengan paksaan dan tanpa persetujuan perempuan yang bersangkutan, yang dilakukan oleh tenaga kesehatan yang tidak profesional, tanpa mengikuti standar profesi dan pelayanan yang berlaku, diskriminatif; atau lebih mengutamakan imbalan materi dari pada indikasi medis.


 


 


 

Pasangan infertil ini bisa menjalani HSG ( Histerosalfingografi)

Pada pasangan yang infertil (tidak subur), sering dilakukan pemeriksaan yang dinamakan HSG (Histero-salpingo-grafi). HSG dilakukan guna mendeteksi kondisi rahim dan saluran indung telur. HSG mempergunakan sinar X dan cairan khusus yang memberikan reaksi warna putih jika di beri sinar X, sehingga akan "tercetak" bentuk rahim dan saluran indung telur (tuba). Sehingga dokter dapat menentukan ada tidaknya kerusakan atau sumbatan pada saluran reproduksi dimaksud.

Disamping itu adad beberapa kelainan yang bisa dideteksi dengan HSG:
* Mioma uteri
* Polip rahim
* Adesi (perlengketan) atau jaringan ikat
* Endometriosis

HSG dikerjakan pada wanita yang menjalani pemeriksaan kesuburan. Setiap wanita yang mencari pengobatan untuk bisa hamil harus ,menjalani pemeriksaan ini. Disamping untuk kelainan rahim dan tuba, ternyata HSG juga meningkatkan angka kehamilan pada sejumlah wanita, karena pemeriksaan HSG membantu membersihkan dan membuka sumbatan tuba yang ringan.

Prosedur HSG dilakukan di bagian radiologi (bagian rontgen) secara rawat jalan. Prosedurnya sangat cepat sekali, hanya membutuhkan waktu beberapa menit saja. Prosedurnya sebagai berikut:

Sebagaimana tindakan diagnostik, ada komplikasi/efek samping yang timbul akibat HSG. Tetapi sangat jarang (hanya 1%) seperti: spotting, pingsan, infeksi rahim serta reaksi alergi zat pewarna rontgen. Untuk meminimalisir efek ini, biasanya dalam zat pewarna kadang juga sudah ditambahkan antibiotik, anti alergi serta anti kejang saluran peranakan.


Hasil HSG

Hasil normal berupa tidak adanya sumbatan pada kedua tuba (tuba paten) serta bentuk dan ukuran rahim yang normal. Hasil tidak normal yang mungkin ditemukan adalah sumbatan pada tuba (non-paten tuba), adanya adesi pada dinding rahim (ada bagian yang saling berlengketan) serta bentuk rahim yang tidak seperti biasanya.

Jika hasil HSG normal, maka diperlukan pemeriksaan lanjutan lainnya guna mencari penyebab ketidaksuburannya, sedangkan jika hasilnya tidak normal maka dibutuhkan tindakan medis guna mengatasi kelainan yang ada seperti jika terjadi sumbatan tuba perlu dulakukan tindakan peniupan tuba (hdrotubasi atau pertubasi).

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